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Service (Selection Aids, User Manual)Downloads

Heating with infrared radiation is a complex issue. A higher emitter temperature does not always mean a faster heating. Matching the emitter and its temperature with the object to be heated (material, colour, form and surface) is absolutely crucial in infrared heating. For example, it may be that an object that perfectly absorbs a certain wave length of a certain emitter stays surprisingly cool when the same emitter is operated at a higher electric power and thus higher temperature. A change of power and temperature will always mean a shift in emitted wave lengths which, in turn, may pass through the object or be reflected.

The following work guidelines give you valuable information for the correct selection of infrared heaters. While the selection according to application is solely based on practical experience, the selection according to temperature and wave length and selection according to spectra also specify the emitter-specific design parameters. The user manual include important safety and operation information.

Choose from our service chapter between these categories:


Selection According to Application

Application Short Wave Quartz Emitters Medium Wave Quartz Emitters Long Wave Ceramic Infrared Emitters
PLEASE NOTE: The allocations are indications.
We strongly recommend to test possible element types and wattages before final selections are made.
Paint drying      
Steel panels - Acrylic   x x
Steel panels - Alkyd   x x
Steel panels - Epoxy   x x
Epoxy Lacquer x x  
Plastics      
PVC Paste Curing   x x
A.B.S. Forming   x x
Polystyrene Forming   x x
Polyethylene Forming   x x
Polypropylene Forming   x x
Car Bodies   x  
Prelacquering x    
Powder Paint x    
Adhesives      
Water Based x x  
End Polymerisation x    
Paper Labels     x
Glue Coating on Paper     x
Food      
Pasteurisation, Sterilisation x    
Thermal Stabilisation x    
Roasting   x x
Textiles      
Latex Backing Carpet     x
PVC Backing Carpet     x
Screen Printed T-Shirts   x x
Heat Setting Transfers     x
Screen Painting      
Plastic Instruments Dials     x
Aluminium Fascia Panels   x  
Wellness      
IR cabins     x

Selection According to Temperature and Wave Length

Download the table Selection According to Temperature and Wave Length here.

Wave length: λ 2,95 µm
Temperature: T 750 °C / 1382 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 1000 W 6,5 W/cm² 772 °C 4 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes (P)HQE 123,5 x 62,5 mm 500 W 6,5 W/cm² 772 °C 4 min 210g
Quartz Cassettes QQE 62,5 x 62,5 mm 250 W 6,5 W/cm² 772 °C 4 min 136g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 1000 W 6,5 W/cm² 772 °C 4 min 386g
Wave length: λ 3,15 µm
Temperature: T 700 °C / 1292 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 1000 W 6,8 W/cm² 722 °C 4 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters HTE/HFE 122 x 60 mm 500 W 6,8 W/cm² 722 °C 4 min 104/105g
Solid Ceramic Emitters QTE/QFE 61 x 60 mm 250 W 6,8 W/cm² 722 °C 4 min 70/65g
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 750 W 4,9 W/cm² 690 °C 4,5 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes (P)HQE 123,5 x 62,5 mm 400 W 5,2 W/cm² 720 °C 4,5 min 210g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 750 W 4,9 W/cm² 690 °C 4,5 min 386g
Wave length: λ 3,35 µm
Temperature: T 650 °C / 1202 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Hollow Ceramic Emitters FFEH 245 x 60 mm 800 W 5,4 W/cm² 670 °C 2 min 195g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters HFEH 122 x 60 mm 400 W 5,4 W/cm² 670 °C 2 min 117g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters SFEH 122 x 122 mm 800 W 5,4 W/cm² 670 °C 2 min 242g
Solid Ceramic Emitters LFFE 245 x 95 mm 1400 W 6,3 W/cm² 667 °C 4 min 342g
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 650 W 4,2 W/cm² 664 °C 5 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes QQE 62,5 x 62,5 mm 150 W 3,9 W/cm² 635 °C 5 min 136g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 650 W 4,2 W/cm² 664 °C 5 min 386g
Wave length: λ 3,6 µm
Temperature: T 600 °C / 1112 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 750 W 5,1 W/cm² 634 °C 4,5 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters HTE/HFE 122 x 60 mm 325 W 4,4 W/cm² 634 °C 4,5 min 104/105g
Solid Ceramic Emitters QCE 60 x 55 mm 250 W 6,8 W/cm² 592 °C 4 min 75g
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 750 W 5,0 W/cm² 634 °C 4,5 min 178g
Solid Ceramic Emitters LFTE 245 x 110 mm 1500 W 5,5 W/cm² 596 °C 4 min 386g
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 500 W 3,2 W/cm² 593 °C 5 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes (P)HQE 123,5 x 62,5 mm 250 W 3,2 W/cm² 593 °C 5 min 210g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 500 W 3,3 W/cm² 593 °C 5 min 386g
Wave length: λ 3,85 µm
Temperature: T 550 °C / 1022 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Hollow Ceramic Emitters FFEH 245 x 60 mm 600 W 4,1 W/cm² 563 °C 2 min 195g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters HFEH 122 x 60 mm 250 W 3,4 W/cm² 535 °C 3 min 117g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters HFEH 122 x 60 mm 300 W 4,1 W/cm² 563 °C 2,5 min 117g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters SFEH 122 x 122 mm 500 W 3,4 W/cm² 535 °C 3 min 242g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters SFEH 122 x 122 mm 600 W 4,1 W/cm² 563 °C 2,5 min 242g
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 650 W 4,4 W/cm² 589 °C 4,5 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 650 W 4,4 W/cm² 589 °C 4,5 min 178g
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 400 W 2,6 W/cm² 542 °C 5,5 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 400 W 2,6 W/cm² 542 °C 5,5 min 386g
Wave length: λ 4,15 µm
Temperature: T 500 °C / 932 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Hollow Ceramic Emitters FFEH 245 x 60 mm 400 W 2,7 W/cm² 488 °C 3 min 195g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters HFEH 122 x 60 mm 200 W 2,7 W/cm² 488 °C 3 min 117g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters SFEH 122 x 122 mm 400 W 2,7 W/cm² 488 °C 3 min 242g
Bulb Emitters ESE-XL Ø 140 x 140 mm 400 W - 530 °C 2,5 min 253g
Bulb Emitters ESE-R Ø 95 x 140 mm 250 W - 516 °C 2,5 min 165g
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 500 W 3,4 W/cm² 486 °C 4,5 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters HTE/HFE 122 x 60 mm 250 W 3,4 W/cm² 486 °C 4,5 min 104/1050g
Solid Ceramic Emitters QTE/QFE 60 x 60 mm 125 W 3,4 W/cm² 486 °C 4,5 min 70/65g
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 500 W 3,4 W/cm² 486 °C 4,5 min 178g
Solid Ceramic Emitters LFTE 245 x 110 mm 1000 W 3,6 W/cm² 511 °C 4,5 min 386g
Solid Ceramic Emitters LFFE 245 x 95 mm 750 W 3,4 W/cm² 501 °C 5 min 342g
Wave length: λ 4,5 µm
Temperature: T 450 °C / 842 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Bulb Emitters ESE-XL Ø 140 x 140 mm 300 W - 450 °C 3 min 253g
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 400 W 2,7 W/cm² 464 °C 5 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters HTE/HFE 122 x 60 mm 200 W 2,7 W/cm² 464 °C 5 min 104/105g
Solid Ceramic Emitters QCE 60 x 55 mm 150 W 4,1 W/cm² 440 °C 4,5 min 75g
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 400 W 2,7 W/cm² 464 °C 5 min 178g
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 250 W 1,6 W/cm² 438 °C 6 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes (P)HQE 123,5 x 62,5 mm 150 W 1,9 W/cm² 470 °C 5,5 min 210g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 250 W 1,6 W/cm² 438 °C 6 min 386g
Wave length: λ 4,9 µm
Temperature: T 400 °C / 752 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Hollow Ceramic Emitters FFEH 245 x 60 mm 250 W 1,7 W/cm² 383 °C 4 min 195g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters FFEH 245 x 60 mm 300 W 2,0 W/cm² 400 °C 3,5 min 213g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters HFEH 122 x 60 mm 125 W 1,7 W/cm² 383 °C 4 min 117g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters SFEH 122 x 122 mm 250 W 1,6 W/cm² 383 °C 4 min 242g
Hollow Ceramic Emitters SFEH 122 x 122 mm 300 W 2,0 W/cm² 400 °C 3,5 min 242g
Bulb Emitters ESE-B Ø 60 x 110 mm 100 W - 426 °C 9 min 112g
Bulb Emitters ESE-S Ø 65 x 140 mm 100 W - 426 °C 4 min 112g
Bulb Emitters ESE-R Ø 95 x 140 mm 150 W - 441 °C 3 min 165g
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 300 W 2,0 W/cm² 400 °C 5,5 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters HTE/HFE 122 x 60 mm 150 W 2,0 W/cm² 400 °C 5,5 min 104/105g
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 300 W 2,0 W/cm² 400 °C 5,5 min 178g
Wave length: λ 5,4 µm
Temperature: T 350 °C / 662 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 250 W 1,7 W/cm² 354 °C 6 min 188/182g
Solid Ceramic Emitters HTE/HFE 122 x 60 mm 125 W 1,7 W/cm² 354 °C 6 min 104/105g
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 250 W 1,6 W/cm² 354 °C 6 min 178g
Solid Ceramic Emitters LFFE 245 x 95 mm 350 W 1,6 W/cm² 338 °C 5,5 min 342g
Quartz Cassettes (P)FQE 247 x 62,5 mm 150 W 0,9 W/cm² 343 °C 6 min 327g
Quartz Cassettes SQE 123,5 x 123,5 mm 150 W 1,0 W/cm² 343 °C 6 min 386g
Wave length: λ 6,0 µm
Temperature: T 300 °C / 572 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Bulb Emitters ESE-B Ø 60 x 110 mm 60 W - 300 °C 5 min 113g
Bulb Emitters ESE-S Ø 65 x 140 mm 60 W - 300 °C 5 min 113g
Wave length: λ 6,8 µm
Temperature: T 250 °C / 482 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Solid Ceramic Emitters SFSE 122 x 122 mm 150 W 1,0 W/cm² 262 °C 7 min 178g
Solid Ceramic Emitters FTE/FFE 245 x 60 mm 150 W 1,0 W/cm² 262 °C 7 min 188/182g
Wave length: λ 8,0 µm
Temperature: T 200 °C / 392 °F
Name Type Surface Wattage Surface watt density T surface* Heat-up time Weight
* time until appr. 85% of final temperature is reached
Solid Ceramic Emitters LFFE 245 x 95 mm 150 W 0,7 W/cm² 204 °C 6,5 min 342g

Selection According to Spectra

In close co-operation with the faculty of experimental physics of the German University Duisburg-Essen we are constantly improving our infrared emitters. The testing and comparing of new substances and material are ever present research issues for us. The fruits of this research are products which possess high emission rates and therefore can be operated with low working temperatures at short heating and cooling periods. Furthermore, our infrared emitters show an energy coefficient of > 95%¹ auf.

Especially useful is the spectral measuring technology used by our scientific partner which makes the invisible infrared radiation "visible". Thus we exactly know from each of our emitters which wave length it radiates and at what intensity. If on the one hand it is pre-known how intensively the material to be heated absorbs the radiated wave lengths then the emitters can be chosen accurately – secure in the knowledge that the heating effect will be deployed completely; at the surface or with the target material.

Absorption transmission characteristics for most popular technical materials can be found in relevant spectral libraries and compendia. As alternative we can also exactly determine the characteristic of the material to be processed. If you are not satisfied with your process results, we recommend the spectral fine-tuning of emitter and processed material as safe method to reach the target. If you send us samples we can then test which emitters will achieve the required results in the best way.

The following charts show examples of comparable emission characteristics of our standard emitter types at varied electric power.

Selection According to Spectra [1 / 3]
Selection According to Spectra [2 / 3]
Selection According to Spectra [3 / 3]

Spectra of other emitter types and wattages on request!

1For ceramic, quartz emitters, quartz-halogen and quartz-tungston emitters together with a reflector.


Heating up and cooling down times by type

Choose an infrared emitter in order to see the heating up and cooling down times
or download the pdf with all curves here.

ESE-B and ESE-S - Bulb Emitters

ESE-R and ESE-XL - Bulb Emitters

FQE and PFQE - Quartz Cassettes

HQE and PHQE - Quartz Cassettes


User manual

Risk of overheat

The aluminised steel sheet used for our projectors/ reflectors and cases of Ceramic and Quartz Infrared Emitters begins to corrode at temperatures exceeding 500 °C. Here the steel loses its reflection characteristic which could result in critical overheating and destruction of the elements. Due to the excellent reflection characteristic of aluminised steel (reflection value ∼0.96) under normal circumstances temperatures of 500 °C are not reached. Nevertheless pollution, condensation / dripping water and "face-to-face" operation of emitters / reflectors / projectors / panels can reduce the reflection effect and thereby increase the risk of overheating. In case these risks cannot be ruled out we recommend reflectors made of polished stainless steel (on request!), to also provide air cooling or to attach external thermocouples to avoid over-temperature by any control system.

Users should ensure that the surface temperature of ceramic emitters does not exceed 750 °C under any conditions.

Our Quarz Halogen Emitters (QHx/ QTx) must be protected against overheat at the sealed terminations to both sides. Here the maximum temperature must not exceed 350 °C. Otherwise leakage could occur and destroy the emitters almost instantly. Other capable measures of precaution could also be ventilation, shielding or an adequately dimensioned "cold" length.

Overvoltage

Our infrared heaters are designed for being operated at defined voltages. Operation at higher voltages may reduce the product lifetime considerably or result in immediate failure (15% more voltage = 32% more power!!!).

Installation position

Our Quartz and Quartz Halogen Emitters can only be used horizontally. In moving applications / platens the quartz elements always have to be mounted crosswise to the direction of motion.

Safe distance

Please take care that you leave enough space between the bead insulated leads of our Ceramic and Quartz Infrared Emitters and the mounting or cover plate above/below. Otherwise, on touch and condition of a contaminated atmosphere, conductive deposits or soiling can cause earth leakage or short-circuits.

Ventilation

Through heat radiation vapouring substances can on the one hand reduce radíation power and on the other hand lead to problematic deposits on leads and reflectors. In such applications sufficient ventilation must be provided.

Tests

In every practice application there are working and environmental parameters which cannot be calculated exactly in theory. That is why we generally recommend the testing of our heating elements under real working conditions before serious use.

No warranty claims can be derived from these user instructions.


Infrared Research

  • Heatworks 11 - The proof of the pudding - The new Ceramicx Centre for Infrared Innovation download pdf

    Heatworks 11 - The proof of the pudding - The new Ceramicx Centre for Infrared Innovation
    (Dr Gerard McGranaghan. In: HeatWorks 11, February 2014, pages 12 - 14; Publisher: Ceramicx Ireland Ltd.

    In this article you are introduced to the Ceramicx Center for Infrared Innovation C²I². This supports Ceramicx to unveil the truth about infrared heating and its industrial heat works applications. To achieve this goal a group of scientists takes advantage of the Herschel measuring robot that allows for mapping 3D heat flux images of any kind of IR radiating sources. Additionally the Center also imparts knowledge of IR-radiators and their applications via its online courses on www.ceramicxinfraredtraining.com.


  • 3D Infra-Red Heat Flux Mapping download pdf

    3D Infra-Red Heat Flux Mapping

    This technical article explains the most intriguing "toy" of the Ceramicx Centre of Infrared Innovation C²I², the Herschel measuring robot. With Herschel it becomes possible to scan 3D images of a the heat flux that is radiated from any IR source. Herschel indeed is an instrument that makes IR-radiation visible. This will help to lift IR applications engineering onto the next performance level.

  • Comparison of aged reflector efficiency download pdf

    CCII 00120 - Comparison of aged reflector efficiency

    As previously shown by Ceramicx, the use of a polished aluminised steel reflector increases the percentage radiative heat flux emitted towards the heating target compared with stainless steel. For lower temperature applications, where oxidation of the aluminium is unlikely to occur, aluminised steel is shown to be a better performing material. For higher temperature applications, where aluminium oxidation is likely to occur, stainless steel is a better choice as it leads to a greater proportion of radiative energy directed towards the target material.


  • Aluminised steel comparison download pdf

    CCII 00117 Aluminised steel comparison

    The exact reasons for the material degradation differences are unknown; however, this analysis shows that at elevated temperatures, the durability of the aluminised steel material used by Ceramicx is superior to that used by a leading competitor. The influence of the surface polishing of the Ceramicx material cannot be discounted, however quite how this influences the thermal durability is unknown.


  • Analysis of the performance change by inclusion of Basalt fibres in Ceramic Elements download pdf

    CCII 00116 Analysis of the performance change by inclusion of Basalt fibres in Ceramic Elements

    This analysis shows that adaptation of Ceramicx's ceramic mixture to include igneous rock fibres does not alter the efficiency of the elements. Of more influence is the colour of the glaze, which can lead to a 4% increase in the radiant heat flux output for a 1000W heater. Consistent with previous research carried out and published by Ceramicx, the black glaze remains the most efficient heat flux increase method.


  • Comparison study of five quartz glasses used for heating element protection download pdf

    CCII 00107 Comparison study of five quartz glasses used for heating element protection

    The results of the experiment above show that the Robax® glass, currently used by Ceramicx, to protect its heaters possesses one of the best IR transmission properties for the quartz cassette heaters. This is because the transmission spectrum for this glass is at a maximum in the active waveband of the heater.


  • Aluminised and Stainless Steel Discolouration download pdf

    CCII 00014 Aluminised and Stainless Steel Discolouration

    This test report shows the superiority of the Ceramicx reflector material compared to alternatively used reflector materials regarding its resistivity against high temperature discolouration and degeneration, both leading to an inevitable loss of reflection properties. Also in a direct comparison to a well-known European competitor it shows that Ceramicx' material is at least equivalent if not even better.

  • Performance of Hollow vs Plain elements, with and without reflector download pdf

    CCII 00034 Performance of Hollow vs Plain elements, with and without reflector

    This report measures the differences in emitted heat flux between hollow and plain elements. Of particular interest is the effect of a reflector placed at the rear of the elements on the emitted infrared output. If a hollow element is used without a reflector, it will not suffer a drop in performance to the same extent as using an FTE element without a reflector. The FFEH 600W gives almost the same infrared output as an FTE 650W element, and also a higher peak heat flux thanks to its narrower elliptical heat flux profile.


  • Heatworks 11 - Putting the cap on it download pdf

    Heatworks 11 - Putting the cap on it
    (In: HeatWorks 11, February 2014, pages 14 - 15; Publisher: Ceramicx Ireland Ltd.)

    This article explains the motivation, the procedure and the detailed realization of a significant further improvement of the Ceramicx' quartz cassette heater range. After reading the article you will understand why Ceramicx customers can only benefit from this innovation.

  • Infrared heating of multiwalled composites and polymers download pdf

    CCII 00101 Infrared heating of multiwalled composites and polymers

    The results presented in this paper are indicative of the surface heating and penetrative capability of infrared. This data shows that simple material variations such as surface finish can cause dramatic changes in the IR the heating rate as well as how the penetrative properties of infrared radiation, when matched to the material being heated can often be utilised to heat a second surface below the first layer. The results also show the importance of actual tests on specific materials which must be taken in conjunction with the material processing steps.


  • Performance of Hollow vs Plain elements, with and without reflector download pdf

    CCII 00034 Performance of Hollow vs Plain elements, with and without reflector

    This report measures the differences in emitted heat flux between hollow and plain elements. Of particular interest is the effect of a reflector placed at the rear of the elements on the emitted infrared output. If a hollow element is used without a reflector, it will not suffer a drop in performance to the same extent as using an FTE element without a reflector. The FFEH 600W gives almost the same infrared output as an FTE 650W element, and also a higher peak heat flux thanks to its narrower elliptical heat flux profile.


  • Report for Friedr Freek QFE Arrays download pdf

    CCII 00024 Report for Friedr Freek QFE Arrays

    This test report analyzes the heat flux homogenity respectively profile of emitter arrays in IR modules or panels, specially looking at the effect of reflectors and contribution of single emitters. An array comprising 9 QFE 150W elements arranged in a 3 x 3 pattern was tested with and without surrounding reflectors. In addition various single elements were powered off to study the heat flux profiles. Using the longest reflector minimises dispersion of the emitted radiation and also results in a more confined heat flux spread with higher peak values.



Downloads:

  • Chapter Infrared Heaters
    Chapter Infrared Heaters

    Contact free heating, various wave lengths: Direct heating of materials and surfaces. We offer a huge standard range for every type of infrared radiation in different models.


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